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This standard defines safety requirements for forklift mounted platforms which may be used to elevate personnel. The standard covers the following:
Where forklift mounted work platforms are inappropriate for the job being performed, suitable elevating work platforms (scissor lifts, boom lifts, etc.) shall be used.
WCB Standard A324 is included in I.H.&S. Regulation 32.36(2)(f) "or other standards acceptable to the Board."
The following definitions apply in this standard:
Forklifts used for elevating personnel shall be designed, fabricated, operated, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the following standards:
Modifications and adaptations to the forklift which will affect its operation, hydraulic system or structural integrity shall be approved by the forklift manufacturer or a registered Professional Engineer.
Forklifts shall be maintained in accordance with service manual requirements.
Forklifts used for elevating personnel shall have a level indicating device attached to the mast to indicate when the mast is vertical. Restraints must be provided to ensure the mast is maintained within five degrees of the vertical position when personnel are elevated.
Forks must be secured against dislodgement.
Where the elevation of the platform is accomplished by a hydraulic cylinder assembly, the system shall be equipped to prevent free descent of the platform in the event of hydraulic line failure.
The operator must be trained to operate the forklift and must demonstrate proficient machine operation to his supervisor prior to lifting personnel on a work platform.
Before lifting the platform:
Forklifts shall be immobilized against inadvertent movement while the platform is occupied.
For those platforms requiring an attendant forklift operator, the operator shall remain within 25 feet (7.6 m) of the machine controls on ground level with the machine and platform in his view and in communication with the workers on the platform.
The machine and platform shall be in good operating and structural condition and be maintained as required by the manufacturer.
Workers shall not climb the forklift mast.
Rated loads shall not be exceeded.
Replacement parts for the platform shall meet or exceed the requirements of the original parts.
The platform shall not be elevated higher than 30 ft. (9 m).
Workers shall not be transported on the platform.
Platform occupants shall not work from locations higher than the platform surface.
Occupants of work platforms shall wear safety belts secured to suitable and substantial anchor-points except while offloading materials from the platforms.
All work platforms shall meet the following requirements.
5.1 Design and Manufacture
5.1.1 Basic Principles
Sound engineering and manufacturing principles shall be applied in the design and manufacture of work platforms considering they will be carrying personnel.
5.1.2 Material Requirements
Load carrying members subjected to tension or reversing stresses shall be of materials that do not become brittle at low temperatures.
Bolts, nuts and other fasteners whose failure would result in the free descent of the work platform must conform to or exceed the requirements of ASTM Standard A325, High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints. SAE Grade 5, the equivalent or better shall also be acceptable.
Wooden platform components shall be constructed from #2 grade or better; species to be limited to the following groups: - Douglas Fir-Larch; Hem-Fir; Spruce-Pine-Fir or Coast Sitka Spruce only. All lumber shall be graded according to the National Lumber Grades Authority Rules or other approved grading rules. All lumber shall be grade stamped by an approved agency.
5.1.3 Welding Standards
All welding shall conform to the following standards:
The work platform shall be secured to the fork carriage to prevent forward, lateral or rotational movement. Self-latching mechanisms are acceptable.
The platform shall have suitable dimensions and/or be mounted such that the forks will support at least 75% of the platform dimension parallel to the fork arms but will not protrude beyond the edge of the platform.
The platform shall be constructed so as not to cause any hazard to its occupant(s).
The dangerous parts of all moving machinery including the shearing hazards created by the movement of the lifting mechanism shall be securely guarded against inadvertent contact by occupants of the platform.
The work platform shall have a slip resistant floor surface.
The platform shall have 42 in (1070 mm) high guardrails, intermediate rails and 4 in (100 mm) high toe boards on all sides or be enclosed to a height of 42 in (1070 mm). Guardrails must be capable of withstanding a horizontal force of 200 lbs. (890 N). Chains are not to be used for guardrails.
Guardrails may be removable or hinged for opening during loading and unloading. They shall be constructed to accomplish proper positioning and so that a secured condition is discernible. Where removable guardrails are installed the toe boards must also be removable.
All work platforms shall have an emergency stop button to enable personnel on the platform to shut off power to the lift truck.
Substantial anchor points shall be provided for securing safety belts.
5.2 Platform Identification
Work platforms must have permanent, legible identification providing the following information:
Any platform with the working surface greater than 12 inches (300 mm) above the level of the forks shall be certified by a registered Professional Engineer with consideration for the diminished fork lift capacity and system stability. The requirements of Section 6.2 apply.
Where a work platform is mounted on a forklift with side-shift or reaching capability the combination must be certified by a registered Professional Engineer as to its stability in the least stable configuration. The requirements of Section 6.2 apply.
Platforms Carrying Personnel and Handtools Only With an Attendant Forklift Operator
These shall be restricted to maximum dimensions of 4 ft. x 4 ft. (1.2 m x 1.2 m). The platform must be positioned with the shorter axis parallel to the forks.
The rated load of the platform shall conform to the manufacturer's instructions, however, in no case shall it exceed 500 lbs. (2.2 kN).
6.1.3 Carrier Forklift Requirements
Minimum carrier forklift requirements shall be as follows:
All work platforms shall be structurally sound. Damaged or deteriorated platforms shall not be used.
No modifications shall be made to the work platform without the approval of the manufacturer.
6.2 Platforms Carrying Personnel and Materials
Work platforms intended for carrying personnel and materials or those with a capacity or size greater than allowed for in Subsection 6.1 shall be certified by a registered Professional Engineer and meet the following requirements:
6.2.1 Stability Requirements
The work platform/forklift combination shall maintain stability while supporting a minimum static load of two times the platform rated load in any working position on a level surface. The centre of gravity of the load shall be within 12 inches (300 mm) of the platform edge with the unit in the least stable configuration.
When carrying the platform rated load and raised to the maximum working height of the platform on a level surface, the work platform/forklift combination must be stable while sustaining a horizontal force equal to 150 pounds (670 Newtons) or 15% of the rated load, whichever is greater. This horizontal force shall be applied to the perimeter of the platform at the working surface elevation so as to create the most adverse loading condition while the unit is in its least stable configuration. The centre of gravity of the vertical load shall be within 12 inches (300 mm) of the platform edge with the unit in the least stable loading condition.
The work platform/forklift combination shall be able to maintain stability, while sustaining a static load of 1-1/3 times the rated load of the platform, in every position in which the load can be placed, with the forklift on a slope of five degrees downward in the direction most likely to cause overturning. The centre of gravity of the load shall be within 12 inches (300 mm) of the platform perimeter.
6.2.2 Structural Factors of Safety
All load supporting elements shall be designed with a safety factor of not less than:
The design stress used in determining the structural safety factor shall be the maximum stress induced in the element with the device operating with its rated load.
Work platforms that have sustained damage such that the structural integrity is suspect shall be recertified by a registered Professional Engineer prior to use.
No modifications shall be made to a work platform without the approval of a registered Professional Engineer.
Control Requirements for Platforms Without an Attendant Forklift Operator
Work platforms may be used without an attendant forklift operator. These shall have both remote hoist and tilt controls mounted on the work platform. An operator is not required to attend the machine controls if the platform controls have been selected for use.
When the platform mounted hoist and tilt controls are in use, means shall be provided to render the hoist and tilt controls on the truck in- operative. Only one set of controls shall be capable of being operated at one time. Only trained operators shall operate the controls on the platform.
An emergency lowering system available at ground level shall be provided. This device shall be protected against inadvertent application, and shall be clearly marked.