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Resources - Hazards in Confined Spaces

Types of Confined Spaces | Hazards in Confined Spaces | Working Safely in Confined Spaces | Confined Space Hazards in Different Industries | Confined Space Training | Confined Space Rescue | Confined Space Videos | Hazard Alerts and Bulletins

The following links list publications and other resources to help with confined space issues. These resources may not meet all the requirements for health and safety in British Columbia. Please check the Workers Compensation Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, and related materials for specific WorkSafeBC requirements.

Hazards of Confined Spaces

"This book describes the main types of hazards found in confined spaces. Confined spaces may contain hazardous atmospheres, including insufficient oxygen, toxic (poisonous) air, or an explosive atmosphere. These spaces may also have physical hazards that may result, for example, in workers falling, being crushed or buried, or drowning. These hazards may not be obvious. All confined spaces must be carefully assessed to identify any hazards."
Source: WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC
* PDF (912 KB)
* Web book
* A free ebook version for iPad is available on iTunes

Also available in the following languages:

* Print copies are available for purchase from the WorkSafeBC Store

Safety and Health in Confined Spaces

"Safety and Health in Confined Spaces goes beyond all other resources currently available. International in scope, the 15 chapters and 10 appendices cover every facet of this important subject. A significant addition to the literature, this book provides a confined space focus to other health and safety concepts."
Source: Neil McManus, Lewis Publishers, Copyright 1999
* Available for purchase through

Incorrect use of monitoring equipment in confined spaces can endanger workers

"Gas monitoring instruments are designed to protect workers from unseen workplace hazards. Exposure to toxic gases or an oxygen-deficient atmosphere can cause serious illness and even death. Gas monitors must be used whenever practicable to ensure the safety of workers in confined spaces.
* WS 2009-03 Updated: 2013
Source: WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC

Carbon monoxide in industry

"This document provides basic information about the danger of CO in the workplace. It describes situations in which CO is a hazard, how to recognize and treat CO poisoning, and how to prevent poisoning."
* WS 2009-02
Source: WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC

H2S hazard reminder

Describes three incidents involving H2S exposure and how to prevent it.
* WS 2004-02
Source: WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC

OSH Answers: Confined space - introduction

"Many workers are injured and killed each year while working in confined spaces. An estimated 60% of the fatalities have been among the would-be rescuers. A confined space can be more hazardous than regular workspaces for many reasons."
Source: CCOHS (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety)

Safe work in confined spaces

"This leaflet is aimed at employers and the self-employed who carry out work in confined spaces, and forms part of HSE's commitment to make simple and practical guidance available for small firms."
Source: Health and Safety Executive, UK
* PDF (38 KB)

Complete Confined Spaces Handbook

"This handbook provides plant managers, supervisors, safety professionals, and industrial hygienists with recommended procedures and guidance for safe entry into confined spaces."
Source: John Rekus, Lewis Publishers, Copyright 1994
* Available for purchase through

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